Study Material for The Students of English Language and Literature

Friday, April 05, 2013

Remedial Teaching


Remedial Teaching

Introduction-
          In India English becomes a important language after independence. After the independence British people left the country but their English language still remain in India English has accepted in the school curriculum.
          It is possible for English language to be presented so well, and imitated so faithfully, that a pupil will learn a language, step by step, without falling into any errors in the use of what he has been taught. In fact under the best of teachers, mishearing and misunderstandings will occur and from the first lesson onward pupil is likely to distort into incorrectness some of the language materials that has been presented to him in correct examples of usages. His distortions urgently demand correction through a kind of teaching we may call remedial teaching.

Meaning of Remedial teaching-
          The word ‘Remedial’ by both print and web definition, means-

“To ractify, improve or remedy something.”

          And so it should be in the remedial teaching area. Whether it’s math, reading or spelling, defining the problem is as important as defining the fix! Assessment is the first step in working through the student’s struggles, and there several ways to initiate this process.

e.g.-
          If a student shows signs of learnings problems, especially in reading, a professional cognitive skills evaluation should be the next step. This kind of assessment utilizes testing methods to identify specific areas of concern; anything from vision and aditory processing, memory, logic, reasoning and attention are among the cognitive skills measured. Some reading specialists recommend using the woodcock.
          Johnson 3 tests of cognitive Abilities and the Grey oral Reading test according to Tanya Mitchell, VP of research and development for learning RX.

          “If a parent is concerned about a child’s reading by mid-first grade”,
Jill Lauren says that-
          Reading specialists and author,
“that child has the right to be evaluated under the federal law known as IDEA.’

Need of Remedial Teaching-
          In the teaching process one of the important tasks before the teacher is making the student first unlearn and then re-learn, quite substantial chunks of language which he had learnt wrongly earlier for the present we offer only a few general remarks. There are three things a good language teacher must do.
1-      Introduce new material anew skills-
2-      Practice all materials and skills already introduce.
3-      Remedy all defects in the learning of material and skill already introduced and practice
If ‘Introduced’ and ‘Practice’ were performed ideally, we could expected that learning would be unnecessary. But even in the best of teaching conditions students to misunderstands and mislearn   and due to remedy is always necessary.

Common Errors in Students Learning-
a-      language-
English has very typical  place in India. In the past English was first language. Due to used everywhere in offices, school and so on. But Indian people faced many problem of understand English language. Even in slum area, student from such areas are very poor in study as well as economy. There are many examples are present that’s they gets problem of English language. They makes mistakes.



1- Numbers-
The learner tends to generalize on the basis of whatever he has learnt apply the generalization is appropriate but in some case it inappropriate. Hence students makes errors.
e.g.-
      A student learning the plural form of English common nouns many generalize for himself the rule. If there is more than one, add- s
Book- books.

He applies this generalization and produced.

Man- mans
Foot- foots
Mouse-mouses  etc.

      2-Verb Forms-
The errors may occurs at verb form that of the morpheme and the words.
1-taked
2-diged
3-breaked   etc.

   3- Punctuation-
Punctuation means the right use of putting in points or stops. In writing     students commit mistakes to used inverted comma,
1-      Gopal said, ‘This is my school’
2-      Mother said, ‘ The bell is very nice,
Above punctuations are wrong because student commit errors to use of inverted comma.
   4-Article-
There are many students who cannot used correct articles at appropriate place. They confused to used ‘a’ and ‘an’
e.g.-
1- This is a ant.
2-Mohan is a honest boy.
3- An University.
4-  A elephant.
     Thus, students get problem to used articles in learning English.
5-Preposition –
          Preposition is another thing which students confuse to used. They failed to use right preposition at right place.
e.g.
1- She is at corner.
2- He has sat on chair    etc.
          Some prepositions create problem from students due to learning.
1-      among-  between.
2-      Beside- beneath
3-      On- upon
4-      Ahead- over. etc.
B- Literature-

1- To understand Culture-
            The student can learn the culture of country of which the literature in hand is the writer reflects the society and himself in the work of art. This helps the reader to know the culture of the people of that language. But most of the student failed to understand to culture of particular society from the novel, drama and poetry.
e.g.
          social customs, meeting, domestic, ceremonies and engagement  etc.
 a-Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe

2-Significance of Rustics-
The role of rustics in literature is not prominent, but the study of the literature will not be complete without the study of rustic character, but in some cases student cannot understand to the rustics.
e.g.
a- novel- ‘ Tess of D’Urberville’- Thomas Hardy
          - Mr. and Mrs. Crick, Marian Izz  etc.

3- Awareness of Human Sight-
               Literature helps students to get awareness of human sight.
                Literature is also called ‘Humanities’ this indicate that literature is about all       human being and their common needs and instincts. But some students makes errors of human sight from literature therefore, there is need of remedial teaching.
e.g.
‘Scarlet  Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorn’

4-Criticism of Literary Work-
         The study of literature can help the students to acquaint the with criticism. Literature presents them a great deal of material. Various forms and styles are found in various books but most of the students failed to criticize the literary work. They commit mistakes.
   e.g.  Hamlet

   5-Setting and Background-
There are various types of setting and background. Each has important as per used by writer. However, students make mistakes to understand it.
e.g.
1- Novel -  The Heart of Darkness- Conrad.
2-Poem- Kubla Khan  Coloridge.
3- Drama- As You Like it- Shakespeare.


c-To Understand Symbol-
Symbol is nothing but stands for something else
e.g. Red is used for danger.
          It has prominence place in literature but student commit error to understands the real meaning of symbol.
e.g.
      1- Tess Of D’Uberville       -  Hardy.
      2- Snake                              -  Lawarance.

Procedure of Remedial Teaching-
          There are four steps in procedure of remedial teaching as follows-
1- Proper  Classification and Grouping of Underachiever-
Careful, accurate and proper classification and grouping of under achievers on the basis of diagnostic testing are necessary for homogeneity in the group selected for remedial teaching. It makes application of correctives proper effective and useful.
         If a diagnostic test of ‘concord’ is administered to standard 11th students there might emerge four group viz. students poor in.
a-Grammatical Concord
b-Concord as per the law of proximity
c-National concord and
d-Concord for exceptional nouns and phrases like news, politics, the Arabian night etc.
It is quite possible that a student might be poor in his achievement of a single aspect
e.g.-    grammatical concord of might be poor in two or more or all.
          There will be a number of groups of underachievers in case of speaking ability. It case of proper  and acceptable English sounds; there might be a group of student who cannot pronounce /f/ properly when it occurs is these positions viz. initial  (flower) medal in lift, final in leaf. Yet another group of student might encounter differentiates in pronouncing the consonant /s/ whenit is clustered with other consonants.
e.g.
          ‘school’ as ‘Iskul’, Street’ as ‘Istreet’etc. there might be a group of students who use a falling tone for verbal questions such as  ‘Will you do it?’
          These examples are sufficient enough to stress the point that student who display similar  mistake and underachievement need to be classified and grouped together.

Use of Proper Maxims-
          Students poor achievement in the English language cannot be totally ascribed to poor learning and infective and insufficient teaching there can some other factors that are responsible for poor achievement therefore,proper teaching and learning and considerate approsch are necessary in remedial teaching.  
a-      the first maxim is that accurate diagnosis and accurate classification of    underachiever must be ensured.
b-     There should be multi-skill and multimedia approaches.
e.g.
          for learning of the English spelling a student might prefer memorization, an     other might write a word a number of times.
c-      Proper study habits reading and writing should also developed.
d-     Underachievers should be treated sympathetically. They should be provided with emotional security, they need motivation.
e-      There are some other factors like family background, social strata, lack of motivation, poor health, look of study material, poverty which adversely effect achievement of student best possible help and co-opration should be provided. It is significant human epart of remedial teaching.
Advantages of Remedial Teaching-
      Remedial teaching is important in teaching-learning process. It has following advantages-
1-      It helps students in correcting the concept that have been misunderstood .
e.g.-
      degree of comparison students tend to use positive, comparative and superlative degree interchangeable.
2-      In  reinforce parts or structures that are forgotten due to discuss
e.g.-
      Students confusion between singular and plural forms like teeth and tooth mouse and mice. Etc.
3-      It fills gaps in students learning
e.g.-
      Confusion between ‘then’ and ‘than’, ‘there’ and ‘their’, its and it etc.
4-      It strengths and reinforce students knowledge which is useful for future learning.
e.g.-
      for the communication skill describing stages and process the knowledge of the simple present tense needs to be rrevised and reinforced
5-      It  speeds up the process of the English language learning by reinforcing proper language habits.
6-      The underachievers can be brought on equal footing with the general class in terms of achievements in the English language. This makes the class homogeneous.

  Diagnostic Testing and Remedial Teaching in English-
Learning is a complex activity. It is more complex in case of English
because it is a foreign language. It involves many skills like comprehension speaking,
reading and writing. These skills, moreover, consist of many sub skills. As a matter of
fact, learning of English is a continuous process i.e. learning and mastering of one
structural item serves as the foundation for further learning. Therefore, each layer of
learning should be strong and long lasting. Then alone the entire learning of English will be good.

Concept of Diagnostic testing-
The term diagnosis is borrowed from medicine. Diagnosis means identification of
disease with the help of patient’s symptoms.
The teacher, like the physician, uses test instruments to obtain Scientific and definit proof for making better diagnosis of pupil’s difficulties in learning. Therefore, diagnostic tests can be defined as the tests which provide a detailed picture of strengths and weaknesses in the areas of pupils’ learning. These tests are instruments to find out gaps in their learning.

Distinction Between Diagnostic test and Survey test -
Diagnostic tests are different from survey tests. Survey tests in English provide a general appraisal of pupils status in English. They are useful as the first step to identify the pupils who need further diagnosis and remediation. On the other hand, diagnostic tests are useful in locating specific weaknesses, gaps and errors e.g.a survey test in reading would indicate a general performance of a pupil in reading but a diagnostic test in reading would indicate his specific difficulties, errors and underachievement in particular area like pronunciation, speed of reading, working with unfamiliar words etc.

Need and Utility of diagnostic testing-
Diagnostic tests are useful to the teachers of English for many reasons. They help the teachers to-
a) Identify pupils who make slow progress in English language learning,
b) Identify the causes of slow progress among pupils,
c) Locate specific weaknesses in an area of English learning,
d) Identify the specific areas which need remediation,
e) Ascertain the basis for planning remedial teaching in an area of linguistic skills,
f) Provide proper feedback to pupils,
g) Place the pupils properly in the learning process of English,
h) Hasten the process of English language learning,
i) Heighten the efficiency of teaching learning process,
j) Modify and adjust methods of providing learning experiences.

PROCEDURE TO FRAME DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
The procedure to frame diagnostic tests involves two steps. They are-
A) Analysis of complex performance into its component sub skills. For ex:- The
component of ‘Indirect narration’ are –
1- Understanding the dialogue from together with reporting verbs and reported speech.
2- Understanding the correct reference of pronouns use in reported speech.
  3-Recognizing the types of sentences used in the reported speech.
  4-Recognizing the tense used in the reported speech.
5-Ability to modify pronouns, tense forms reporting verbs, and sentence constructions.
6-Skill to use proper punctuation marks.

B) Developing tests for each of the component skills-
The second step involved in developing diagnostic tests is to frame suitable test items
for each minute skill in the sub skill of a learning area. There should be many test items so that the entire area of sub skill is covered. Generally objective type of test items are preferred and while doing so all the norms of objectives test items should be followed.

Administration of Diagnostic testing-
Administration of diagnostic tests is similar to that of administration of unit tests and
achievement tests. However, some precautions must be taken. They are as followsa)
Introduction by the teacher:- The purpose of the diagnostic test should be clarified
to the pupils.
b) Proper instructions to pupils:- Proper instructions regarding the method of
answering the questions should be given.
c) Time limit: Generally, no time limit is prescribed for diagnostic tests so that each
pupil works at his own speed.


Conclusion –
        Thus diagnostic testing and remedial teaching go hand in hand Diagnostic testing is meaningless and useless without remedial teaching.
          Remedial teaching has provided itself a vital role of remedial teaching. It is no doubts that ‘Man is idol’ of mistake. In the some case student makes error in learning. Hence, remedial teaching help them to come reinforce.

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